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To this. Learn More. No, Thanks. I just want to play games right now. Login to Earn XP. Metaphysics is the most important fields of philosophy that deal with the studies of ultimate reality and human knowledge, respectively. In this lesson, we will discuss the first two major fields, Metaphysics and Epistemology, and we will deal with the remaining two fields, Axiology and Logic, in the next lesson Lesson 4. List any question that you might think is a metaphysical question.

Show your question to student s beside you, and discuss about your questions together. Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the ultimate nature of reality or existence. A thinking mind? A perishable body? Or a combination of both? It may seem By: Teklay G.

It is obviously flat, solid, and smooth; it has a particular color; it is composed of an identifiable material, such as wood or concrete; and it supports your weight. Suppose, however, that a physicist enters the room and questioned about the reality of the floor. She will reply that the floor is made of molecules; that molecules consist of atoms, electrons, protons, and neutrons; and these, finally, of electric energy alone.

A third position is offered by a passing chemist. To him the floor is a hotbed of hydrocarbons associated in a particular way and subject to certain kinds of environmental influences, such as heat, cold, wetness, dryness, and oxidation. It is evident that the question of reality is not as simplistic as it appears. If the reality of a common floor is confusing, what about the larger problems that presents themselves as humankind searches for the ultimate reality of the universe?

Metaphysical questions are the most basic to ask because they provide the foundation upon which all subsequent inquiry is based. Metaphysical questions may be divided into four subsets or aspects. Did it come about by accident or design? Does its existence have any purpose? If so, is there one or more than one? What are the attributes of God? If God is both all good and all powerful, why does evil exist? Is mind more fundamental than body, with body depending on mind, or vice versa?

Are people born good, evil, or morally neutral? To what extent are individuals free? Do they have free will, or are their thoughts and actions determined by their environment, inheritance, or a divine being?

Does each person have a soul? If so, what is it? People have obviously adopted different positions on these questions, and By: Teklay G. Is it composed of one element e. Is it fixed and stable, or is change its central feature? Is this reality friendly, unfriendly, or neutral toward humanity?

List any question that you might think is an epistemological question. Epistemology is the other field of philosophy that studies about the nature, scope, meaning, and possibility of knowledge. It deals with issues of knowledge, opinion, truth, falsity, reason, experience, and faith.

In other words, we can say that Epistemology is the study of the nature, source, and validity of knowledge. The study of epistemology deals with issues related to the dependability of knowledge and the validity of the sources through which we gain information.

Or both? Epistemology seeks answers to a number of fundamental issues. One is whether reality can even be known. Skepticism in its narrow sense is the position claiming that people cannot acquire reliable knowledge and that any search for truth is in vain.

That thought was well expressed by Gorgias, the Greek Sophist who asserted that nothing exists, and that if it did, we could not know it. A full-blown skepticism would make intelligent action impossible. A term closely related to skepticism is agnosticism.

Agnosticism is a profession of ignorance in reference to the existence or nonexistence of God. Most people claim that reality can be known. However, once they have taken that position, they must decide through what sources reality may be known, and must have some concept of how to judge the validity of their knowledge.

A second issue foundational to epistemology is whether all truth is relative, or whether some truths are absolute. Is all truth subject to change? Is it possible that what is true today may be false tomorrow? If, however, there is Absolute Truth, such Truth is eternally and universally true irrespective of time or place.

Closely related to the issue of the relativity and absoluteness of truth are the questions of whether knowledge is subjective or objective, and whether there is truth that is independent of human experience. A major aspect of epistemology relates to the sources of human knowledge. If one accepts the fact that there is truth and even Truth in the universe, how can human beings comprehend such truths?

How do they become human knowledge? Empirical knowledge appears to be built into the very nature of human experience. Thus, when individuals walk out of doors on a spring day and see the beauty of the landscape, hear the song of a bird, feel the warm rays of By: Teklay G. Sensory knowing for humans is immediate and universal, and in many ways forms the basis of much of human knowledge. The existence of sensory data cannot be denied. For example, most people have been confronted with the contradiction of seeing a stick that looks bent when partially submerged in water but appears to be straight when examined in the air.

Fatigue, frustration, and illness also distort and limit sensory perception. In addition, there are sound and light waves that are inaudible and invisible to unaided human perception.

Humans have invented scientific instruments to extend the range of their senses, but it is impossible to ascertain the exact dependability of these instruments since no one knows the total effect of the human mind in recording, interpreting, and distorting sensual perception.

Confidence in these instruments is built upon speculative metaphysical theories whose validity has been reinforced by experimentation in which predictions have been verified through the use of a theoretical construct or hypothesis. In general, sensory knowledge is built upon assumptions that must be accepted by faith in the dependability of human sensory mechanisms.

The advantage of empirical knowledge is that many sensory experiences and experiments are open to both replication and public examination. A second important source of human knowledge is reason. The view that reasoning, thought, or logic is the central factor in knowledge is known as rationalism. From this perspective, the sensations and experiences humans obtain through their senses are the raw material of knowledge.

These sensations must be organized by the mind into a meaningful system before they become knowledge. Rationalism in a less extreme form claims that people have the power to know with certainty various truths about the universe that the senses alone cannot give.

In its extreme form, rationalism claims that humans are capable of arriving at irrefutable knowledge independently of sensory experience. Formal logic is a tool used by By: Teklay G. Systems of logic have the advantage of possessing internal consistency, but they risk being disconnected from the external world. Systems of thought based upon logic are only as valid as the premises upon which they are built. A third source of human knowledge is intuition- the direct apprehension of knowledge that is not derived from conscious reasoning or immediate sense perception.

Intuition has been claimed under varying circumstances as a source of both religious and secular knowledge. Certainly many scientific breakthroughs have been initiated by intuitive hunches that were confirmed by experimentation. The weakness or danger of intuition is that it does not appear to be a safe method of obtaining knowledge when used alone.

It goes astray very easily and may lead to absurd claims unless it is controlled by or checked against other methods of knowing. Intuitive knowledge, however, has the distinct advantage of being able to bypass the limitations of human experience. A fourth influential source of knowledge throughout the span of human history has been revelation. Revealed knowledge has been of prime importance in the field of religion. It differs from all other sources of knowledge because it presupposes a transcendent supernatural reality that breaks into the natural order.

Believers in supernatural revelation hold that this form of knowledge has the distinct advantage of being an omniscient source of information that is not available through other epistemological methods. The truth revealed through this source is believed by Christians to be absolute and uncontaminated.

On the other hand, it is generally realized that distortion of revealed truth can occur in the process of human interpretation. Some people assert that a major disadvantage of revealed knowledge is that it must be accepted by faith and cannot be proved or disproved empirically. A fifth source of human knowledge, though not a philosophical position, is authority.

Authoritative knowledge is accepted as true because it comes from experts or has been sanctified over time as tradition. In the classroom, the most common source of information is some authority, such as a textbook, teacher, or reference work.

Accepting authority as a source of By: Teklay G. Civilization would certainly stagnate if people refused to accept any statement unless they personally verified it through direct, firsthand experience. On the other hand, if authoritative knowledge is built upon a foundation of incorrect assumptions, then such knowledge will surely be distorted. Dear learners, it is important to note that one source of information alone might not be capable of supplying people with all knowledge.

It might be important to see the various sources as complementary rather than antagonistic. However, it is true that most people choose one source as being more basic than, or preferable to, the others, and then use it as a benchmark for testing other sources of knowledge. For example, in the contemporary world, knowledge obtained empirically is generally seen as the most basic and reliable type. Lesson 4: Axiology and Logic Lesson Overview We have said earlier that philosophy deals with the most basic issues faced by human beings.

Axiology is the philosophical study of value, which originally meant the worth of something. It includes the studies of moral values, aesthetic values, as well as political and social values. Logic, on the other hand, is a philosophical study of arguments and the methods and principles of right reasoning.

In this lesson, we will discuss Axiology and Logic as the other two major fields of philosophy. List any question that you might think is an axiological question. Axiology is the study or theory of value. Hence, Axiology is the philosophical study of value, which originally meant the worth of something. Ethics Activity 2: – Dear learners, how do you define ethics?

What ethical rules, principles, and standards do you know and follow, and why? Discuss about it with the student s beside you. Ethics By: Teklay G. The supernatural God? Human reason? Mutual social contract? Social custom? If so, is He Benevolent and Omnipotent? If God does not create evil things, then, there must be another creator who is responsible to creation of the evil things?

But, if it is so, how can God be an Omnipotent creator? For the sake of our own individual benefits? Ethics, or ethical studies, can be grouped into three broad categories: Normative ethics, Meta- ethics, and Applied Ethics.

Normative Ethics refers to the ethical studies that attempt to study and determine precisely the moral rules, principles, standards and goals by which human beings might evaluate and judge the moral values of their conducts, actions and decisions.

It is the reasoned search for principles of human conduct, including a critical study of the major theories about which things are good, which acts are right, and which acts are blameworthy. Consequentialism or Teleological Ethics, Deontological Ethics, and Virtue Ethics are the major examples of normative ethical studies. Meta-ethics is the highly technical philosophical discipline that deals with investigation of the meaning of ethical terms, including a critical study of how ethical statements can be verified.

It is more concerned with the meanings of such ethical terms as good or bad and right or wrong than with what we think is good or bad and right or wrong.

Applied Ethics is a normative ethics that attempts to explain, justify, apply moral rules, principles, standards, and positions to specific moral problems, such as capital punishment, euthanasia, abortion, adultery, animal right, and so on. This area of normative ethics is termed applied because the ethicist applies or uses general ethical princes in an attempt to resolve specific moral problems. Aesthetics Activity 3: – Dear learners, how do you define and understand aesthetics?

What Discuss about it with the student s beside you. Aesthetics is the theory of beauty. It studies about the particular value of our artistic and aesthetic experiences. If so, what do they communicate? What political and social rules, principles, and standards do you know and follow, and why? If it does, how does it come to existence? Discuss about it with student s beside you. Logic is the study or theory of principles of right reasoning.

It deals with formulating the right principles of reasoning; and developing scientific methods of evaluating the validity and soundness of arguments. What is a fallacy? In this lesson, we will discuss the fundamental benefits of learning philosophy. Activity 1: – Dear learners, can you list, based on our previous lessons, the possible benefits of studying philosophy?

Who do you think needs philosophy? Discuss with the student s beside you. Let us clarify it more. Some modern psychologists point out that human beings have both maintenance and actualizing needs.

The former refer to the physical and psychological needs that we must satisfy in order to maintain ourselves as human beings: food, shelter, security, social interaction, and the like. Although philosophy may not necessarily lead to this By: Teklay G. There are many characteristics of self-actualization to whose achievement studying philosophy has a primordial contribution. Here below are some of them.

Among the primary goals of philosophy, one is the integration of experiences into a unified, coherent, and systematic world views. Studying philosophy helps us not only to know the alternative world views but also to know how philosophers have ordered the universe for themselves.

As a result, we can learn how to develop and integrate our experiences, thoughts, feelings, and actions for ourselves, and thus how to be intellectually and behaviorally independent. Philosophy helps us to intensify our self- awareness by inviting us to critically examine the essential intellectual grounds of our lives.

As we confront with the thoughts of various philosophers we can easily realize that no viewpoint is necessarily true or false- that the value of any attitude is contextual. Finally, we become more tolerant, open-minded, more receptive, and more sympathetic to views that contend or clash with ours.

From the study of philosophy, we can learn how to refine our powers of analysis, our abilities to think critically, to reason, to evaluate, to theorize, and to justify. The other benefit of studying philosophy that should not be missed is that it helps us to deal with the uncertainty of living.

Philosophy helps us to realize the absence of an absolutely ascertained By: Teklay G. But, what is the advantage of uncertainty? What Bertrand Russell stated in his book, The Problem of Philosophy, can be a sufficient answer for this question.

The value of philosophy is, in part, to be sought largely in its very uncertainty. The man who has no tincture of philosophy goes through life imprisoned in the prejudices derived from common sense, from the habitual benefits of his age or his nation, and from convictions which have grown up in his mind without the cooperation or consent of his deliberate reason.

To such a man the world tends to become definite, finite, obvious; common objects rouse no questions, and unfamiliar possibilities are contemptuously rejected. As soon as we begin to philosophize, on the contrary, we find… that even the most everyday things lead to problems to which only very incomplete answers can be given. Philosophy, though unable to tell us with certainty what is the true answer to the doubts which it raises, is able to suggest many possibilities which enlarge our thoughts and free them from the tyranny of custom.

Thus, while diminishing our feeling of certainty as to what things are, it greatly increases our knowledge as to what they may be; it removes the somewhat arrogant dogmatism of those who have never traveled into the region of liberating doubt, and it keeps alive our sense of wonder by showing familiar things in an unfamiliar aspect Bertrand, , P; Chapter Summary Logic, as a field of study, is a branch of philosophy that deals with the study of arguments and the principles and methods of right reasoning.

Therefore, philosophy, as a pursuit of wisdom, is the development of critical habits, the continuous search for truth, and the questioning of the apparent. It simply refers to the extraordinary ability and curiosity to deal creatively with the phenomenal world, to go beyond the common understanding, and to speculate about things that other people accept with no doubt.

Philosophy, as a rational and critical enterprise that tries to formulate and answer fundamental questions through an intensive application of reason, is a dual-sided universal discipline: critical and constructive sides.

While, as a critical discipline, it deals with giving a rational critic, analysis, clarification, and evaluation of answers given to basic metaphysical, epistemological, and axiological questions, it attempts, as a constructive discipline, to formulate rationally defensible answers to certain fundamental questions concerning the nature of reality, the nature of value, and the nature of knowledge and truth.

Its systematic, logical and flexible approach to the ultimate reality of the universe, human life, knowledge experience, truth and values and its holistic and evolutionary nature are some the fundamental features of philosophy. Philosophy uses its major branches to deal with the most important issues human beings face, namely Metaphysics, Epistemology, Axiology, and Logic. Metaphysics deals with the studies of ultimate reality and existence.

Epistemology deals with the study of the meaning, nature, source, scope and possibility of human knowledge. Axiology deals with the philosophical studies of human values, such as moral values, aesthetic values, as well as political and social values. Philosophy provides various fundamental benefits to learners.

It provides students with the tools they need to critically examine their own lives as well as the world in which they live, it assist them to actualize themselves by promoting the ideals of self-actualization. That is, studying philosophy helps to achieve the most important characteristic of self-actualization: Intellectual and Behavioral Independence, Reflective Self-Awareness, Flexibility, Tolerance, and Open- Mindedness, Creative and Critical Thinking, and Conceptualized and well-thought-out value systems in morality, art, politics, and the like.

Moreover, studying philosophy helps us to deal with the uncertainty of living, meaning it helps us to realize the absence of an absolutely ascertained knowledge, and hence prepare ourselves to the ever growing human knowledge. Define philosophy as a pursuit of wisdom. Explain the wisdom that philosophers seek. List and discuss the major features of philosophy.

Discuss briefly the core branches of philosophy. Explain the major aspects of metaphysical study. Discuss the fundamental epistemological debates concerning the source of human knowledge. Discuss briefly the major branches Ethics or Moral Philosophy.

Discuss the importance of studying philosophy. Learning to Philosophize, London, Penguin Books, Hurley, Patrick J. Mabott, J. Steven Classics of Western Philosophy, 5th ed. Pojman, P. Ratner, Joseph, ed. Woodhouse, Mark B. The aim of logic is to develop a system of methods and principles that we may use as criteria for evaluating the arguments of others and as guides in constructing arguments of our own.

Argument is a systematic combination of two or more statements, which are classified as a premise or premises and conclusion. A premise refers to the statement, which is claimed to provide a logical support or evidence to the main point of the argument, which h known as conclusion.

A conclusion is a statement, which is claimed to follow from the alleged evidence. Depending on the logical and real ability of the premise s to support the conclusion, an argument can be either a good argument or a bad argument.

However, unlike all kinds of passages, including those that resemble arguments, all arguments purport to prove something. Arguments can generally be divided into deductive and inductive arguments. A deductive argument is an argument in which the premises are claimed to support the conclusion in such a way that it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false. On the other hand, an inductive argument is an argument in which the premises are claimed to support the conclusion in such a way that it is improbable that the premises be true and the conclusion false.

The deductiveness or inductiveness of an argument can be determined by the particular indicator word it might use, the actual strength of the inferential relationship between its component statements, and its argumentative form or structure.

A deductive argument can be evaluated by its validity and soundness. Likewise, an inductive argument can be evaluated by its strength and cogency. Depending on its actually ability to successfully maintain its inferential claim, a deductive argument can be either valid or invalid. That is, if the premise s of a certain deductive argument actually support its conclusion in such a way that it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false, then that particular deductive argument is valid.

If, however, its premise s actually support its conclusion in such a By: Teklay G. Similarly, an inductive argument can be either strong or weak, depending on its actually ability to successfully maintain its inferential claim. That is, if the premise s of a certain inductive argument actually support its conclusion in such a way that it is improbable for the premises to be true and the conclusion false, then that particular inductive argument is strong. If, however, its premise s actually support its conclusion in such a way that it is probable for the premises to be true and the conclusion false, then that particular inductive argument is weak.

Furthermore, depending on its actually ability to successfully maintain its inferential claim as well as its factual claim, a deductive argument can be either sound or unsound. That is, if a deductive argument actually maintained its inferential claim, i. However, if it fails to maintain either of its claims, it will be an unsound argument. Likewise, depending on its actually ability to successfully maintain its inferential claim as well as its factual claim, an inductive argument can be either cogent or uncogent.

That is, if an inductive argument actually maintained its inferential claim, i. However, if it fails to maintain either of its claims, it will be an uncogent argument. In this chapter, we will discuss logic and its basic concepts, the techniques of distinguishing arguments from non-argumentative passages, and the types of arguments. An argument is a systematic combination of one or more than one statements, which are claimed to provide a logical support or evidence i. An argument can be either good or bad argument, depending on the logical ability of its premise s to support its conclusion.

The primary aim of logic is to develop a system of methods and principles that we may use as criteria for evaluating the arguments of others and as guides in constructing arguments of our own.

In this lesson, we will discuss the meaning and basic concepts of logic: arguments, premises, and conclusions. What is the Meaning of Logic? Activity 1: – Dear learners, how do you define Logic? Dear learners, the word logic comes from Greek word logos, which means sentence, discourse, reason, truth and rule.

Logic in its broader meaning is the science, which evaluates arguments By: Teklay G. It could be also defined as the study of methods and principles of correct reasoning or the art of correct reasoning. Logic can be defined in different ways. More precisely, logic is the study of methods for evaluating whether the premises of arguments adequately support or provide a good evidence for the conclusions. Logicians explore the structure of arguments that preserve truth or allow the optimal extraction of knowledge from evidence.

The precision of logic helps them to cope with the subtlety of philosophical problems and the often misleading nature of conversational language. In logic, as an academic discipline, we study reasoning itself: forms of argument, general principles and particular errors, along with methods of arguing.

We see lots of mistakes in reasoning in daily life and logic can help us understand what is wrong or why someone is arguing in a particular way.

What is the Benefit of Studying Logic? Layman Activity 2: – Dear learners, what do you think is the benefit of studying logic? We use logic in our day-to-day communications. As human beings, we all think, reason and argue; and we all are subject to the reasoning of other people.

Some of us may think well, reason well and argue well, but some of us may not. The ability to think, reason and argue well might partially be a matter of natural gift. Likewise, as academicians, our arguments must be logical and acceptable; and the tool to do so is provided by logic. The aim of logic, hence, is to develop the system of methods and principles that we may use as criteria for evaluating the arguments of others and as guides in constructing the arguments of our own in our day-to-day lives.

Thus, by studying logic, we are able to increase our confidence when we criticize the arguments of others and when we advance arguments of our own. In fact, one of the goals of logic is to produce individuals who are critical, rational and reasonable both in the sphere of public and private life.

However, to be full beneficial of the worth which logic provides, one must thoroughly and carefully understand the basic concepts of the subject and be able to apply them in the actual situations. What is an Argument? Activity 3: – Dear learners, what do you think is an argument? What comes to your mind when you think of an argument? For all of us encounter arguments in our day-to-day experience. We read them in books and newspapers, hear them on By: Teklay G.

If you look back at the above different definitions of logic and characterizations, you will certainly find one thing in common: argument. Moreover, we have said that of the various benefits of studying logic, identifying, analyzing and evaluating arguments is the most important one. It follows that argument the primary subject matter of logic. What is an argument then? Argument is a technical term and the chief concern of logic.

Argument might have defined and described in different ways. When we define an arguments from logical point of view, it is a group of statements, one or more of which the premise are claimed to provide support for, or reason to believe, one of the other, the conclusion. Let us examine the features of this definition in detail.

First, an argument is a group of statements. That is, the first requirement for a passage to be qualified as an argument is to combine two or more statements. But, what is a statement? A statement is a declarative sentence that has a truth-value of either true or false.

That is, statement is a sentence that has truth-value. Hence, truth and falsity are the two possible truth- values of a statement. A statement is typically a declarative sentence. In other words, statement is a type of sentence that could stand as a declarative sentence. Look the following examples: a Dr. Abiy Ahmed the current Prime Minister of Ethiopia.

Statement a and b are true, because they describe things as they are, or assert what really is the case. B: Logicians used proposition and statement interchangeably.

However, in strict technical sense, proposition is the meaning or information content of a statement. In this chapter, the term statement is used to refer premises and a conclusion. Examples: a Would you close the window? Question b Let us study together. Proposal c Right on! Exclamation d I suggest that you read philosophy texts. Command In fact, sentence is a group of words or phrases that enables us to express ideas or thought meaningfully.

However, unlike statements, none of the above sentences can be either true or false. Hence, none of them can be classified as statement. As a result, none of them can make up an argument. Second, the statements that make up an argument are divided into premise s and conclusion.

That means, the mere fact that a passage contains two or more statements cannot guarantee the existence of an argument. Hence, an argument is a group statement, which contains at least one premise and one and only one conclusion.

This definition makes it clear that an argument may contain more than one premise but only one conclusion. Activity 4: – Dear learners, if argument is a combination of premise s and conclusion, what do you think are premise and conclusion? Argument always attempts to justify a claim.

Therefore, a premise is a statement that set forth the reason or evidence, which is given for accepting the conclusion of an argument. It is claimed evidence; and a conclusion is a statement, which is claimed to follow from the given evidence premise.

In other words, the conclusion is the claim that an argument is trying to establish. Let us now construct arguments together. Example Example 1 All Ethiopians are Africans.

Premise 1 2 Some Africans are black. Premise-1 Tsionawit is Ethiopian. Premise2 Zelalem is an African. Premise-2 Therefore, Tsionawit is African. Conclusion Therefore, Zelalem is black. Conclusion In both arguments, the first two statements are premises, because they are claimed to provide evidence for the third statement, whereas the third statement is a conclusion because it is claimed to follow from the given evidences.

The former are said to be good well-supported arguments, the latter bad poorly-supported arguments. For example, compare the above two examples. In the first argument, the premises really do support the conclusion, they give good reason for believing that the conclusion is true, and therefore, the argument is a good one. But the premises of the second argument fail to support the conclusion adequately.

Even if they may be true, they do not provide good reason to believe that the conclusion is true. Therefore, it is bad argument, but it is still an argument. But how can we distinguish premises from conclusion and vice versa? Despite the purpose of logic, as the science that evaluates and analyses arguments, is to develop methods and techniques that allow us to distinguish good arguments from bad, one of the most important tasks in the analysis of arguments is to distinguish premises from conclusion and vice versa.

Sometimes identifying a conclusion from premises is very tough. Premises and conclusions are difficult to identify for a number of reasons. Even though all arguments are By: Teklay G. Moreover, even though it is assumed, for the sake of argument, that all arguments are composed of premises and conclusion, identifying conclusion from argument is very difficult. Since it is impossible to analyze arguments without identifying a conclusion from premises, we need techniques that can help us to identify premises from a conclusion and vice versa.

The first technique that can be used to identify premises from a conclusion and vice versa is looking at an indicator word. Frequently, arguments contain certain indicator words that provide clues in identifying premises and conclusion. Here below are some Conclusion Indicators: Therefore We may conclude Thus So Wherefore Entails that Consequently It follows that Accordingly Hence We may infer Provided that It shows that It implies that It must be that Whence As a result In argument that contains any of the conclusion indicator words, the statement that follows the indicator word can usually be identified as the conclusion.

By the process of elimination, the other statements in the argument can be identified as premises, but only based on their logical importance to the identified conclusion. Example: Women are mammals. Zenebech is a woman. Therefore, Zenebech is a mammal. Both do similar things, both have great respect in audio engineering circles, and both cross the line from hobbyist software into something a little bit more serious.

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Their new tiers are Artist, Studio, and Flex. Pros Tool Arist is a brand new product perfect for aspiring music creators, songwriters, and producers. Pro Tools Studio was formerly known as Pro Tools Studio and is geared toward professional creators that need both variety and quick access. This tier is geared towards professional music studios.


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