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Quickly and easily enrich your German vocabulary and put your knowledge to the test with this stra Now enter: clear set lon set lat 90 set lev set t 1 dt du In this case we have set the Y latitude and Z level dimensions to vary, so we get a vertical cross section.

We have also displayed two variables, which simply overlay each other. You may display as many items as you desire overlaid before you enter the clear command. First, set the dimension environment to an Z, Y varying one: clear set lon 0 set lat 0 90 set lev set t 1 Now lets say that we want to see the temperature in Fahrenheit instead of Kelvin. We can do the conversion by entering: display t Now we will move on to the topic of controlling the graphics output.

So far, we have allowed GrADS to chose a default contour interval. We can override this by: clear set cint 30 dz We can also control the contour color by: clear set ccolor 3 dz We can select alternate ways of displaying the data: clear set gxout shaded d hcurl u,v This is not very smooth; we can apply a cubic smoother by entering: clear set csmooth on d hcurl u,v We can overlay different graphics types: set gxout contour set ccolor 0 set cint 30 d z and we can annotate: draw title mb Heights and Vorticity We can view wind vectors: clear set gxout vector d u;v Here we are displaying two expressions, the first for the U component of the vector; the 2nd the V component of the vector.

We can also view streamlines and colorize them : clear set gxout stream d u;v;hcurl u,v Or we can display actual grid point values: clear set gxout grid du We may wish to alter the map background: clear set lon set lat 30 45 set mpdset nam set digsiz 0.

But we have told it to display a polar stereographic plot that contains the region bounded by W to 75W and 25N to 65N. The extra plotting area is clipped by the map projection routine. This concludes the sample session. At this point, you may wish to examine the data set further, or you may want to go through the GrADS documentation and try out the other options described there. The data and meta data or information about the data are kept in separate files.

The meta data file contains a complete description of the data and the name of the file containing it, the data file is purely data with no space or time identifiers. The file which you open in GrADS is the data descriptor file the meta data or. You will need to open at least one data-descriptor file before you can enter other GrADS commands. Each file is numbered in the order that you open it in. Initially, the “default file” is file 1, or the first file you open.

The importance of the default file will be discussed later. Default file extension “. Provided you adhere to this standard there is no need to type the extension “. For example. The data-descriptor file is free format, where each field is blank delimited. It can be created easily with a text editor.

The data descriptor file assigns a one to twelve character abbreviation for each variable in the file. These abbreviations are used in GrADS expressions. The use of data descriptor files is now discussed for gridded and station data.

This material uses simple examples which should be enough to enable users to explore the capabilities of GrADS. More advanced features of. Latitudes can vary from north to south or from south to north the default , and levels can vary from top to bottom or from bottom to top. It is easier for us to think of the data set in terms of a sequence of horizontal grids, where longitude and latitude vary. Each horizontal grid represents a particular variable at a particular height and time.

Each horizontal grid is the same size in any particular GrADS data set if you have grids of different sizes, you must create separate data sets. These grids are written to the data set in the following order: starting with a particular variable, grids for each vertical level at a particular time are written out in ascending order. Then the grids for the next variable are written out.

When all the grids at a particular time have been written, grids for the next time are written. Each binary gridded data set is described by a separate data descriptor file, essentially a table of contents for the binary data set. Following is an example of a simple data descriptor file: DSET ua. Comments may not appear in the list of variable records between the vars and endvars records.

Records may not be more than characters long. In this example, the binary data set is named ua. The variables z, t, u, and v have 10 levels, the variable td has 6 levels, and the variable slp has one level see below for a more specific description of each entry. Think in terms of the X and Y data points at one level for one variable at one time being a horizontal grid.

The first dimension always varies from west to east, the second from south to north by default. In the above example the horizontal grids would be written in the following order: Time 1, Level? It may be entered in mixed case. This will be displayed during a query command, so it is helpful to put meaningful information here.

GrADS operations and graphics routines will ignore data with this value from this data set. This is a required parameter even if there are no undefined data. This would happen if you sent a file in binary format from, for example, a Sun to a PC. Putting this keyword in the descriptor file tells GrADS to swap the byte order as the data is being read. Specifically: number — the number of grid values in the X direction, specified as an integer number.

Specified as a floating point value, where negative indicates degrees west. It is assumed that the X dimension values go from west to east. Specified as a positive floating value.

Thus the 20 values would correspond to Latitudes: For GAUSRxx mapping, the start value indicates the first gaussian grid number, where 1 would be the southernmost gaussian grid latitude.

It is assumed that the Y dimension values go from south to north. Specified as a positive floating point value. Specifically: number — the number of times in the data set. Specified as an integer number. If not specified, hh defaults to 00, mm defaults to 00, and dd defaults to 1. The month and year must be specified.

This abbreviation must start with an alphabetic character a-z and be composed of alphabetic characters and numbers. This abbreviation will be the “name” the variable is accessed by from within GrADS. It may not exceed the number of levels in the ZDEF statement. A levs value of 0 indicates this variable has one “level” that does not correspond to a vertical level. An example would be a surface variable.

Put a value of 99 here. This ends the GrADS data descriptor file. The options record in the Data Descriptor File The options record in the data descriptor file allows you to control various aspects of the way GrADS interprets your raw data file. Note that if you have only one X and one Y dimension in your file, each record in the file will be one element long it may not be a good idea to write the file this way. An important thing to remember is that GrADS still presents the view that the data goes from south to north.

The YDEF statement does not change; it still describes the transformation from a grid space going from south to north. The reversal of the Y axis is done as the data is being read from the data file.

The same considerations as yrev apply. This allows the data to worked on both types of hardware without having to worry about byte ordering. The following two option parameters indicate the actual byte ordering of the data. If the data are already in the correct order, no conversion is performed.

These options facilitate moving data files and descriptor files between machines. The only ordering required is that the station reports be grouped within the file into some time interval. For example, the time interval for upper air observations might be 12 hours.

Please refer to Chapter 16 for more general information about GrADS facilities for analysing and displaying station data. Variables within each report are split into two groupings. Each variable is either a surface variable, thus can be reported at most once per report, or it is a level dependent variable, thus can be reported at a number of different levels within one report.

The stnmap utility, and GrADs, will perform the necessary conversion. Station map files must still be created on the machine where they are to be used. This is a 1 to 7 character identifier that should identify the station uniquely. It may be assigned arbitrarily; ie. This refers to the way the stations are grouped in time. For example, if you are working with surface airways reports, you would probably have a time grouping interval of one hour. If you wanted to treat the report times of each report as being exactly on the hour, you would set t to 0.

If the report was for pm, and you were writing the time group for 12pm, you would set t to be 0. Thus, t would typically have the range of – 0. This is the count of the one surface group, if present, plus the number of level dependent groups. Is set to zero to mark the end of a time group in the file. If one, then there are surface variables following the header. Following the header, the data for this report is written.

The first group of data would be all the surface variables if present. Whether or not the surface variable if any are present is determined by the flag in the header. Thus, each surface variable group will be the same size for each report in the file. The surface variables are written out as floating point numbers. The ordering of the variables must be the same in each report, and is the ordering that will be given in the data descriptor file.

Following the surface variable group, any number of level dependent groups may be written. The number of total data groups is provided in the header. Each level dependent group must have all the level dependent variables present, even if they are filled with the missing data value. Thus, each level dependent group will be the same size for all levels and all reports in the file. The level dependent group is written out as follows: level — floating point value giving the Z dimension value in world coordinates for this level.

After all the reports for one time grouping have been written, a special header with no data groups is written to indicate the end of the time group. The header has an nlev value of zero. The next time group may then start immediately after.

A time group with no reports would still contain the time group terminator header record ie, two terminators in a row. This is easily done from a C program. Station Data Descriptor File The format for the data descriptor file for station data is similar to the format for a gridded data set.

This file is created by the stnmap utility, which will be described later. TDEF record — describes the time grouping interval and the number of time groups in the file. VAR records — surface variables must come first, and are given a zero for the number-of-levels field. Level dependent variables are listed after the surface variables, and are given a one in the number-of-levels field. STNMAP Utility Once the data set has been written, and the descriptor file created, you should then create the station map file by running the stnmap utility.

The utility will prompt for the name of the data descriptor file. If you change the data file—perhaps by appending another time group—you will also have to change the descriptor file to reflect the changes—the new number of times for example — and then rerun the stnmap utility. Creating Data Files This section describes how to create the raw data files for gridded and station data, with examples of appropriate data descriptor files. We are really writing the data out sequentially, and using direct access to avoid having the record descriptor words written.

There may be options in your compiler to do this more directly, or you may wish to write the data using a C program. C Assuming no empty time groups. Support for sequential data is under consideration. It would look something like this: dset rain. You can then open and display this data from within GrADS. The current dimension environment describes what part of the data set you want to work with.

Expressions are evaluated with respect to the dimension environment which allows for simplicity in the expression syntax , and the final display will be determined by the dimension environment. Thus, the dimension environment is a GrADS concept that is important to understand.

You may use whatever coordinates are convenient to you. Issuing “set lon” is equivalent to issuing “set x”, both set the x dimension.

The difference is only the units you wish to enter the command in. When you enter just one value, that dimension is said to be “fixed”. When you enter two values, that dimension is said to be “varying”.

The combination of fixed and varying dimensions defines the dimension environment. Examples: set lon 0 sets longitude to vary from W to 0. Time is now a fixed dimension. When all dimensions are fixed, you are referring to a single data point.

When one dimension is varying, you are referring to a 1-D “slice” through the data set. When two dimensions are varying, you are referring to a 2-D “slice” through the data set. An important note: When you enter dimensions in grid coordinates, they are always converted to world coordinates.

This conversion requires some knowledge of what scaling is in use for grid to world conversions. The scaling that is used in all cases except one is the scaling of the default file. The exception is when you supply a dimension expression within a variable specification, which will be covered later. The default initially is 1. A dimension expression is used to locally modify the dimension environment for that variable only. Only fixed dimensions can be thus modified. An important note: When you enter a dimension in grid units, GrADS always converts it to world coordinates.

This conversion is done using the scaling of the default file. However, when a grid coordinate x,y,z,t is supplied within a dimension expression as part of a variable specification, the scaling for that file ie, the file that variable is to be taken from is used. GrADS has a few “predefined” variable names. You can think of these as being variables implicitly contained within any opened gridded file.

The variable names are: lat lon lev When used, they will contain the lat, lon, and lev at the respective grid points, using the scaling of the appropriate file. You can specify: lat. Operations are done on equivalent grid points in each grid. Missing data values in either grid give a result of a missing data value at that grid point. Dividing by zero gives a result of a missing data value at that grid point. Operations cannot be done between grids that have different scaling in their varying dimensions — i.

This can only be encountered when you are attempting operations between grids from different files that have different scaling rules. If one grid has more varying dimensions than the other, the grid with fewer varying dimensions is ‘expanded’ and the operation is performed. The new variable is stored in memory, not on disk, so avoid defining variables over large dimension ranges. The variable is defined to cover the dimension ranges in effect at the time the command is issued.

You may define a variable that has from 0 to 4 varying dimensions. The define command is the only case within GrADS where four varying dimensions is valid. In other words, the expression is evaluated within a dimension environment that has fixed Z and T. This will affect how you compose the expression. When you use a defined variable, data is taken from the variable in a way similar to data taken from a GrADS data file.

If you define a variable that has fixed dimensions, and then later access this variable, the fixed dimensions are treated as “wild cards”. We then fix the Y dimension to be 40N, and display a 1-D slice.

The data from 40N in the defined grid will be accessed. If you then did: set lat d temp The data from 40S would be accessed from the defined variable. Since this is beyond the dimensions originally used when the variable was defined, the data would be set to missing.

Note: the define command currently supports only grids. Once you have defined a grid variables, you may tell GrADS that the new variable is climatological, ie that you wish to treat the time dimension of the new variable in a wild card sense. If the grid is described as seasonal, then it is assumed that the grid contains monthly or multi- month means. Note that daily or multi-day means are not yet supported.

If diurnal is specified, it is assumed the defined variable contains means over some time period less than a day. Undefining new variables Each variable defined using the define command reserves some system resources.

If you no longer need a defined variable it is sensible to free these resources for other use. This is accomplished with the undefine command. For example: undefine p would free the resources used by the defined variable p. A wider range of R programming options enables developers to use a full-featured, integrated R development environment within SPSS Statistics. This comprehensive software solution includes a wide range of procedures and tests to solve your research challenges.

IBM SPSS Base Overview, Features and Benefits Descriptive Statistics Crosstabulations — Counts, percentages, residuals, marginals, tests of independence, test of linear association, measure of linear association, ordinal data measures, nominal by interval measures, measure of agreement, relative risk estimates for case control and cohort studies. Frequencies — Counts, percentages, valid and cumulative percentages; central tendency, dispersion, distribution and percentile values.

Descriptives — Central tendency, dispersion, distribution and Z scores. Descriptive ratio statistics — Coefficient of dispersion, coefficient of variation, price-related differential and average absolute deviance.

Compare means — Choose whether to use harmonic or geometric means; test linearity; compare via independent sample statistics, paired sample statistics or one-sample t test. ANOVA and ANCOVA — Conduct contrast, range and post hoc tests; analyze fixed-effects and random-effects measures; group descriptive statistics; choose your model based on four types of the sum-of-squares procedure; perform lack-of-fit tests; choose balanced or unbalanced design; and analyze covariance with up to 10 methods.

Correlation — Test for bivariate or partial correlation, or for distances indicating similarity or dissimilarity between measures. Nonparametric tests — Chi-square, Binomial, Runs, one-sample, two independent samples, k-independent samples, two related samples, k-related samples.

Explore — Confidence intervals for means; M-estimators; identification of outliers; plotting of findings.

Factor Analysis — Used to identify the underlying variables, or factors, that explain the pattern of correlations within a set of observed variables. If your file includes more than one picture you can browse through pages using the keyboard keys PageDown and PageUp or the toolbar buttons.

Use the right mouse button to access the most commonly used features. What Exectuable Files are in a Release? Supplibs Builds You might need to install some of these shared libraries on your local system. See the wgrib home page only in version 2. Fix the bug that a couple of weather symbols are drawn incorrectly.

In addition to the classic browse view, a new image export view is added. Add page layout settings dialog, in which users can adjust position and size of canvas, title, and legend region; set title content, legend style, and legend unit.

Fix the bug the station positions are incorrectly drawn. Add world city data. Add the feature to restore last session after the application crashes.

Improve isoline analysis quality for high-resolution grid field data. Add smoothing functionality before isoline analysis. Add the feature of modifying display properties of weather symbols in synoptic chart graphics layer. Many other bug fixes. Add country and region border map data for countries and regions in the world.

Add four color tables for shaded contour: white-green, white-blue, yellow-red, and white-gray. Fix the bug that isoline shade result is incorrect when the gridded field range is global and projection type is Lambert. Add the feature to export the selected data of cross-section graphics to GrADS file.

Add the feature to show global topography height. Add 56 pre-defined projection settings that cover most of the countries and regions in the world.


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Microsoft LQL Surface Laptop 2 inch i5, 8GB, GB, Windows 10 S Microsoft Windows 11 Home – License – 1 License – Oem – Dvd – bit -. The Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) is an interactive desktop tool for easy access, manipulation, and visualization of earth science. Runs on Windows 7(service pack 2 or higher) windows 8 and 10 and Mac OS or Intel processor (32 or 64 bit); Memory: 1GB RAM or more recommended.


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